Consequences of validating unethical behaviors
Although significant developments in gender, multicultural, and spiritual/religious research have further defined professional competencies, the impact of globalization and subsequent cultural/ethnic diversity have had a growing influence on professional practice which necessitates a broader base of understanding of human development. Spirituality and psychological adaptation among women with HIV/AIDS: Implications for counseling. There exists a paucity of research for how gender, culture and spirituality intersect and impact intervention and treatment used by counseling professionals (Mc Goldrick, 1998). Understanding gender and cultural differences within the context of spiritual/religious issues has implications for counseling theory, training for counselors and over-all effectiveness of practicing mental health professionals (Fukuyama & Sevig, 1999). Undoubtedly, issues regarding spirituality and religion surface in relation to life events such as religious differences in intimate relationships, deciding on how to raise children, illness and pain, death and dying and learning to live more congruently to one's values. Answering this question may be at the helm of a more sophisticated counseling approach that begs consideration in today's society. Arnett (2002) and Giddens (2000) noted that diversity is shaping and creating multitextured personal and social identities which underscore the observation that we are becoming bicultural, multicultural, and hybrid communities.
A relevant study conducted by O'Connor and Vandenberg (2005) investigating religious beliefs among mental health professionals in their randomly assigned case vignettes demonstrates a level of confusion about how counselors evaluate a client's religion and spirituality in counseling practice.
Gender role socialization and cultural experiences shape identities of women and men, define their behavior, and set up expectations for how they interact in the world (Davenport & Yurich, 1991).
Gender role behaviors change between various cultural groups; however, significant themes reflect commonalities across cultures. Clinical psychologists' religious and spiritual orientations and their practice of psychotherapy.
Accordingly, one's self-perceptions, worldview and identifiable behaviors are significantly influenced by gender, culture and spirituality, and require practicing therapists to develop a more integrated understanding of how these salient factors shape client behavior.
Using these three dimensions to guide therapeutic understanding and intervention suggests an expanded approach and knowledge base to counseling that may be more inclusive and therapeutically respectful to an increasingly diverse population.
Spirituality/religion contributes to women's development and men's identity.